Monday, 23 May 2022 

A country's trade balance reflects the difference between exports and imports of goods and services. The trade balance is one of the biggest components of the Balance of Payment, giving valuable insight into pressures on country's currency.

Surpluses and Deficits
A positive Trade Balance (surplus) indicates that exports are greater than imports. When imports exceed exports, the country experiences a trade deficit. Because foreign goods are usually purchased using foreign currency, trade deficits usually reflect currency leaking out of the country. Such currency outflows may lead to a natural depreciation unless countered by comparable capital inflows (inflows in the form of investments, FDI - where foreigners investing in local equity, bond or real estates markets). At a bare minimum, deficits fundamentally weigh down the value of the currency.

Ramifications of Trade Balance on Markets
There are a number of factors that work to diminish the market impact of Trade Balance upon immediate release. The report is not very timely, coming some time after the reporting period. Developments in many of the figure's components are also typically anticipated well beforehand. Lastly, since the report reflects data for a specific reporting month or quarter, any significant changes in the Trade Balance should plausibly have already been felt during that period - and not during the release of data.

However, because of the overall significance of Trade Balance data in forecasting trends in the Forex Market, the release has historically been one of the most important reports out of the any country.

The Ifo Business Climate Index is a closely followed leading indicator for economic activity in Germany prepared by the Ifo Institute for Economic Research in Munich. It is based on ca. 7,000 monthly survey responses of firms in manufacturing, construction, wholesaling and retailing. The firms are asked to give their assessments of the current business situation and their expectations for the next six months. They can characterise their situation as "good", "satisfactorily" or "poor" and their business expectations for the next six months as "more favourable", "unchanged" or "more unfavourable". The replies are weighted according to the importance of the industry and aggregated. The balance value of the current business situation is the difference of the percentages of the responses "good" and "poor", the balance value of the expectations is the difference of the percentages of the responses "more favourable" and "more unfavourable". The business climate is a mean of the balances of the business situation and the expectations.

One of the country's key business sentiment surveys (Ifo - Information and Forschung Survey). The survey is conducted monthly, querying German firms on the current German business climate as well as their expectations for the next six months. As the largest economy in the Eurozone, Germany is responsible for approximately a quarter of the total Eurozone GDP.

Consequently, the German Ifo is a significant economic health indicator for the Eurozone as a whole. Positive readings bode well for the economy, suggesting increased consumer spending and economic growth. Conversely, low Ifo readings may be indicative of economic slowdown.

The index uses 100 as a centerline between positive and negative outlooks; the further the value is from 100 the stronger the sentiment. The survey presents two equally weighted sub-indices: Current Assessment and Business Expectations.

Ifo Current Assessment
Measures current German business conditions, without considering future expectations.

One of the country's key business sentiment surveys (Ifo - Information and Forschung Survey). The survey is conducted monthly, querying German firms on the current German business climate as well as their expectations for the next six months. As the largest economy in the Eurozone, Germany is responsible for approximately a quarter of the total Eurozone GDP. Consequently, the German Ifo is a significant economic health indicator for the Eurozone as a whole. Positive readings bode well for the economy, suggesting increased consumer spending and economic growth. Conversely, low Ifo readings may be indicative of economic slowdown.

The index uses 100 as a centerline between positive and negative outlooks; the further the value is from 100 the stronger the sentiment. The survey presents two equally weighted sub-indices: Current Assessment and Business Expectations.

Ifo Expectations
Based on firms' expectations for the next six months, where firms rate the future outlook as better, same, or worse.

Market impact tends to be greater when the report reveals a viewpoint that clashes with the ECB's stance. It contains relevant articles, speeches, statistical tables, and provides detailed analysis of current and future economic conditions from the bank's viewpoint.

Assesses overall business environment in a country.

Andrew Bailey assumed the role of Deputy Governor for Prudential Regulation and Chief Executive Officer of the Prudential Regulation Authority (PRA) on 1 April 2013. As Deputy Governor for Prudential Regulation and CEO of the PRA, Andrew Bailey is also a member of the Bank’s Court of Directors, the PRA Board, the Financial Policy Committee, and the Board of the Financial Conduct Authority.
Joachim Nagel is the head of the Bundesbank (CB) of Germany and is on the board of governors who decide on the interest rate. His statements on monetary policy, as well as his position on security issues in Europe and the eurozone, can influence the exchange rate of the single currency, since the position on these issues has a high weight situation.
Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta President Raphael Bostic - FOMC voting member 2018. Federal Reserve FOMC members vote on where to set the nation's key interest rates and their public engagements are often used to drop subtle clues regarding future monetary policy. More hawkish than expected is good for currency.
Time
Country
Macroeconomic Indices Period Previous Reading Forecast Actual Reading Importance
08:00
Trade Balance Apr 2.99
Low
10:00
Ifo Business Climate Index May 91.8 91.5
Medium
10:00
Ifo Current Assessment May 97.2 97.2
Medium
10:00
IFO - Expectations May 86.7 85.8
Medium
12:00
Bundesbank Monthly Report
Low
15:00
NBB Business Climate May 2.4 2.1
Low
16:15
BOE Deputy Governor Andrew Bailey Speaks
High
16:15
ECB board member Joachim Nagel deliver a speech
Low
18:00
FOMC Member Raphael W. Bostic Speaks
Low
Tuesday, 24 May 2022 
Change in the total value of inflation-adjusted sales at the retail level. It's the primary gauge of consumer spending, which accounts for the majority of overall economic activity.
Purchasing Managers Index in Manufacturing. Shows improvement (<50) or worsening (50) of the situation compared to the previous month. The growth of the indicator or the excess of the forecast is favorable for the currency.
Service Purchasing Managers Index. Shows improvement (<50) or worsening (50) of the situation compared to the previous month. The growth of the indicator or the excess of the forecast is favorable for the currency.
Composite index of purchasing managers (for manufacturing and services). Shows improvement (<50) or worsening (50) of the situation compared to the previous month. The growth of the indicator or the excess of the forecast is favorable for the currency.
Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City President Esther George. Federal Reserve FOMC members vote on where to set the nation's key interest rates and their public engagements are often used to drop subtle clues regarding future monetary policy.

A monthly gauge of manufacturing activity and future outlook. The CIPS PMI is comparable to the US ISM survey, similarly based on the opinions of executives in manufacturing companies. Purchasing managers are tasked with gauging future demand, and adjusting orders for materials accordingly. The PMI summarizes the opinions of these executives to give a picture of the future of the manufacturing sector. A higher PMI indicates that materials purchases are increasing and that the economic outlook is positive. Alternately, a lower PMI means orders for materials are down and the future outlook is less favorable. By nature, the figure is very sensitive to the business cycle and tends to match growth or decline in the economy as a whole.

The PMI is presented as an index with a value between 1-100.

Evaluates the monthly change in output produced by Japan's service sector. Because this report excludes manufacturing and only measures service industries catering mainly to domestic needs, the Tertiary Industry Index is a key indicator of domestic activity. The index incorporates data from firms involved in wholesale and retail trade, financial services, health care, real estate, leisure and utilities. The report excludes industrial manufacturing sectors that tend to be influenced by foreign demand. The tertiary industry index is posted monthly as a percentage change from the previous month's figure.

An index level of 50 denotes no change since the previous month, while a level above 50 signals an increase or improvement, and below 50 indicates a decrease or deterioration.

Consumer prices account for a majority of overall inflation. Inflation is important to currency valuation because rising prices lead the central bank to raise interest rates out of respect for their inflation containment mandate.
In the U.K., the amount of expenditures less the total receipts taken in by the government. Public sector net borrowing is the measure of fiscal surpluses and deficits along with the amount of new debt created. If this number is positive, it means the U.K. is running a fiscal deficit, while a negative number represents a fiscal surplus.

A monthly guage of manufacturing activity and future outlook. The CIPS PMI is comparable to the US ISM survey, similarly based on the opinions of executives in manufacturing companies. Purchasing managers are tasked with gauging future demand, and adjusting orders for materials accordingly. The PMI summarizes the opinions of these executives to give a picture of the future of the manufacturing sector. A higher PMI indicates that materials purchases are increasing and that the economic outlook is positive. Alternately, a lower PMI means orders for materials are down and the future outlook is less favorable. By nature, the figure is very sensitive to the business cycle and tends to match growth or decline in the economy as a whole.

The PMI is presented as an index with a value between 1-100.

Gauge for the overall performance of the country's service sector. The Services PMI interviews executives on the status of sales, employment, and their outlook. Because the performance of the country's service sector is extremely consistent over time, services does not impact final GDP figures as much as the more volatile figure on the manufacturing sector. For this reason Services PMI usually causes little market movement. The survey results are quantified and presented as an index on a 1-100 scale. The headline figure is the percentage change in the index.

An index level of 50 denotes no change since the previous month, while a level above 50 signals an increase or improvement, and below 50 indicates a decrease or deterioration.

Gauge for overall performance of the German manufacturing sector. Through asking executives about sales and employment outlook, the survey strives to provide useful information about the business climate that can lead to developments in employment, output and consumption. The PMI survey results are the result of interviews with business executives. Manufacturing is an important sector in Germany , which is why changes in Manufacturing PMI can provide a good indicator to the overall economic condition in Germany as well as Euro-zone. However, despite the timeliness of the report, Manufacturing PMI is not a big market mover.
The survey results are quantified into index where 0 represents long term manufacturing business conditions. The headline figure is expressed in percentage change.

Gauge for the overall performance of the German service sector. The Services PMI interviews German executives on the status of sales, employment, and their outlook. Because the performance of the German service sector is extremely consistent over time, services does not impact final GDP figures as much as the more volatile figure on the manufacturing sector. For this reason Services PMI usually causes little market movement. The survey results are quantified and presented as an index on a 1-100 scale. The headline figure is the percentage change in the index.

An index level of 50 denotes no change since the previous month, while a level above 50 signals an increase or improvement, and below 50 indicates a decrease or deterioration.

The Euro-zone Manufacturing Purchasing Managers Index (PMI) assesses business conditions in the manufacturing sector. Because the manufacturing sector represents nearly a quarter of total Euro-zone GDP, the Euro-zone Manufacturing PMI is both a significant and timely indicator of business conditions and the general health of the economy. Results are quantified in an index in which values above 50 indicate an expected increase of business conditions and values below 50 signal an expected deterioration.

Gauge for the overall performance of the German service sector. The Services PMI interviews German executives on the status of sales, employment, and their outlook. Because the performance of the German service sector is extremely consistent over time, services does not impact final GDP figures as much as the more volatile figure on the manufacturing sector. For this reason Services PMI usually causes little market movement. The survey results are quantified and presented as an index on a 1-100 scale. The headline figure is the percentage change in the index.

The Eurozone Composite Purchasing Managers Index (PMI) assesses business conditions in manufacturing, construction and service sectors. The Eurozone PMI is both a significant and timely indicator of business conditions and the general health of the economy. Close correlation with the business cycle, assessed on the basis of long-term statistical data, allows to use the PMI indicator for prognosis of future GDP volumes. The PMI indices are based on  selected panels of executives in companies who report each month on real events. The subindex of intangibles sector - PMI services - is of more importance because in industrialized countries around 70% of GDP is generated in non-manufacturing sector.

A monthly gauge of manufacturing activity and future outlook. It is comparable to the US ISM survey, similarly based on the opinions of executives in manufacturing companies. Purchasing managers are tasked with gauging future demand and adjusting orders for materials accordingly. The PMI summarizes the opinions of these executives to give a picture of the future of the manufacturing sector. A higher PMI indicates that materials purchases are increasing and that the economic outlook is positive. Alternately, a lower PMI means orders for materials are down and the future outlook is less favorable. By nature, the figure is very sensitive to the business cycle and tends to match growth or decline in the economy as a whole.

The PMI is presented as an index with a value between 1-100.

A monthly gauge of the UK service sector that takes into account business outlook. The survey queries executives in transport and communications, financial intermediation, business services, personal services, computing and IT, hotels and restaurants.

Purchasing managers are tasked with gauging future demand, and adjusting orders for materials accordingly. The PMI summarizes the opinions of these executives to give a picture of the future of the service sector. A higher PMI indicates that materials purchases are increasing and that the economic outlook is positive. Alternately, a lower PMI means orders for materials are down and the future outlook is less favorable. By nature, the figure is very sensitive to the business cycle and tends to match growth or decline in the economy as a whole.

Because the contribution services makes to the economy tends to be very consistent and predictable, Services PMI figures typically do not move markets

The PMI is presented as an index with a value between 1-100.

An index level of 50 denotes no change since the previous month, while a level above 50 signals an increase or improvement, and below 50 indicates a decrease or deterioration.

Level of a diffusion index based on surveyed retailers and wholesalers: above 0 indicates higher sales volume, below indicates lower. This is a survey of about 160 retail and wholesale companies which asks respondents to rate the relative level of current sales volume. It's a leading indicator of consumer spending because retailer and wholesaler sales are directly influenced by consumer buying levels.
 

A monthly index released by the Institute of Supply Management which tracks the amount of manufacturing activity that occurred in the previous month.ISM Manufacuring assesses the state of US industry by surveying executives on expectations for future production, new orders, inventories, employment and deliveries. This data is considered a very important and trusted economic measure. If the index has a value below 50, due to a decrease in activity, it tends to indicate an economic recession, especially if the trend continues over several months. A value substantially above 50 likely indicates a time of economic growth. The values for the index can be between 0 and 100.

Values over 50 generally indicate an expansion, while values below 50 indicate contraction.

It's a leading indicator of economic health - businesses react quickly to market conditions, and their purchasing managers hold perhaps the most current and relevant insight into the company's view of the economy. Above 50.0 indicates industry expansion, below indicates contraction. The 'Previous' listed is the 'Actual' from the Flash release and therefore the 'History' data will appear unconnected. There are 2 versions of this report released about a week apart – Flash and Final. The Flash release is the earliest and thus tends to have the most impact.
An index level of 50 denotes no change since the previous month, while a level above 50 signals an increase or improvement, and below 50 indicates a decrease or deterioration.

Records sales of newly constructed residences in the United States. The figure is a timely gauge of housing market conditions counting home sales when initial housing contracts are signed. Because New Home Sales usually trigger a sequence of consumption, they have significant market impact upon release. In addition to the high expenditure of the new home, buyers are likely to spend more money on furnishing customizing and financing their home. Consequently, growth in the housing market spurs more consumption, generating demand for goods, services and the employees who provide them.

Generally, the housing market is tracked by a number of reports that mark different stages of the construction and home sale process. The first stage is Building Permits, which precede Housing Starts, which lead to Construction Spending, MBA Mortgage Applications and, finally, New Home Sales and Existing Home Sales. As the headline housing figure, New Home Sales are believed to control some of the volatility of other data. For instance, Building Permits and Housing Starts are considered more indicative of business confidence and production rather than consumer spending. And while Existing Home Sales figures are more indicative of consumer expenditures, they are lagging indicators with less predictive value. New Home Sales numbers are considered confirmatory of housing trends and still predictive of consumer spending.

New Home Sales is also a good indicator of economic turning points due to its sensitivity to consumer income. Buying a house is always a major expenditure, typically only undertaken when consumers have sufficient savings or are optimistic about future earnings. Historically, when economic conditions slow, New Home Sales are one of the first indicators to reflect the change. By the same token, New Home Sales undergo substantial growth when the economy has emerged from recession and wages have begun to pick up.

The report headline is the total amount of properties sold.

Assesses regional manufacturing conditions for the Richmond Fed District. Based on mail-in surveys from a representative sample of manufacturing plants, the Richmond Fed Index seeks to track industrial performance. The report puts particular emphasis on inflationary pressures.

Though the Richmond Fed Manufacturing Survey is valued for its quick turnaround, it is still released after the ISM survey. As a result, the figure is often used to affirm or question the ISM report, and has little impact on markets. The Richmond Fed Manufacturing Survey also asks manufacturing executives to stress price expectations. Some markets participants use this data as an early gauge to CPI and PPI reports released a few days later.

The headline figure is a three-month average, calculated by finding the percentage difference between positive and negative responses for the last three months, using a zero boom/bust centerline.

Note: The survey covers such topics as shipments, order volume, backlog volume, capacity utilization, vendor lead time, employees, average workweek, wages, inventory levels, and capital expenditures. The Fifth District includes the District of Columbia , Maryland , both Carolinas, and most of the Virginias.

Federal Reserve Chair Jerome Powell. Fed Chair Feb 2018 - Feb 2022. Fed Governor May 2012 - Jan 2028. The testimony usually comes in 2 parts: first he reads a prepared statement (a text version is made available on the Fed's website at the start), then the committee will hold a question and answer session. Since the questions are not known beforehand they can make for some unscripted moments that lead to heavy market volatility. As head of the central bank, which controls short term interest rates, he has more influence over the nation's currency value than any other person. Traders scrutinize his public engagements as they are often used to drop subtle clues regarding future monetary policy.
BOE MPC members vote on where to set the nation's key interest rates and their public engagements are often used to drop subtle clues regarding future monetary policy.
Time
Country
Macroeconomic Indices Period Previous Reading Forecast Actual Reading Importance
00:45
Retail Sales 1 quarter 8.6% q/q; 6.8% q/q 0.3%; 0.4%
Medium
01:00
S&P Global Manufacturing PMI May 58.8 57.8
Low
01:00
S&P Global Services PMI May 56.1 52.2
Low
01:00
Composite PMI from S&P Global May 55.9 55.0
Low
01:00
FOMC Member Esther George Speaks
Medium
02:30
PMI Manufacturing May 53.5 53.8
Low
02:30
Tertiary Industry Index May 50.7 50.2
Low
02:30
PMI Composite May 51.1 50.5
Low
07:00
BOJ Core CPI Apr 1.1% 1.1%
Low
08:00
Public Sector Net Borrowing Apr 17.3bln; 18.1bln 17.9bln; 18.8bln
Medium
09:15
PMI Manufacturing May 55.7 55.3
Medium
09:15
PMI Services May 58.9 58.7
Medium
09:15
Composite PMI May 57.6 57.3
Medium
09:30
PMI Manufacturing May 54.6 54.1
Medium
09:30
PMI Services May 57.6 57.3
Medium
09:30
Composite PMI May 54.3 54.0
Medium
10:00
PMI Manufacturing May 55.5 54.8
Medium
10:00
PMI Services May 57.7 57.6
Medium
10:00
Composite PMI May 55.8 55.3
Medium
10:30
PMI Manufacturing May 55.8 54.9
Medium
10:30
PMI Services May 58.9 56.9
Medium
10:30
Composite PMI May 58.2 57.4
Medium
12:00
CBI retail sales volume balance May -35 -29
Low
15:45
ISM Manufacturing May 59.2 57.9
Medium
15:45
Final Services PMI May 55.6 55.4
Medium
15:45
Composite PMI May 56.0 55.5
Low
16:00
New Home Sales Apr 763K; -8.6% 750K; -3.4%
Medium
16:00
Richmond Fed Manufacturing Index May 14 12
Low
18:20
Federal Reserve Chairman Jerome Powell Speaks
High
19:15
MPC Member Silvana Tenreyro Speaks
Medium
Wednesday, 25 May 2022 
Luci Ellis is the Assistant Governor (Economic) at the Reserve Bank of Australia, a position she has held since December 2016. She is responsible for the Bank's Economic Analysis and Economic Research departments and is the chief economic advisor to the Governor and the Board. She also chairs the Bank committee responsible for its data strategy and is the executive sponsor of the Bank's Mathematica Users Community and its LGBTI+ allies employee resource group.
The estimate for total construction work done. The estimate is published some time after the house-foundations laying data release and serves as a GDP indicator.
The Official Cash Rate (OCR) is the interest rate set by the Reserve Bank to meet the inflation target specified in the Policy Targets Agreement (PTA). The current PTA, signed in September 2012, defines price stability as annual increases in the Consumers Price Index (CPI) of between 1 and 3 per cent on average over the medium term, with a focus on keeping future average inflation near the 2 percent target midpoint.

The Reserve Bank of New Zealand (RBNZ) releases this statement in connection to its recent decision on short-term interest rates. Interest rates are a primary determinant of a currency's value and these statements are used by traders to determine future monetary policy decisions.

The RBNZ is issued regarding the recent decision on interest rates and is required to include all details on how the bank will achieve its inflation targets and how it intends on achieving its recent monetary policy decisions.

Reserve Bank of New Zealand press conference. The Bank's press conference summarizes the main points of the assessment of the current situation, both in New Zealand itself and outside it. Traders and investors are trying to catch the hints of changing the current rate, that is, raising or lowering the rate, or maintaining the status quo. Unexpected comments can cause very serious movements.

This index is designed to predict the direction of the economy, but it tends to have a muted impact because most of the indicators used in the calculation are released previously. There's a revised version of this indicator released about 10 days later, but it's not included for lack of significance. Source changed series from a diffusion index to a composite index as of Jun 2008. Combined reading of 11 economic indicators related to employment, production, new orders, consumer confidence, housing, stock prices, money supply, and interest rate spreads.

The Gross Domestic Product is a comprehensive measure of an overall production and consumption of goods and services. GDP serves as one of the primary measures of overall economic well-being. While GDP announcements generally conform to expectations, unanticipated changes in this metric can move markets.

Robust GDP growth signals a heightened level of economic activity and often a higher demand for the domestic currency. At the same time, economic expansion raises concerns about inflationary pressures which may lead monetary authorities to increase interest rates. Thus better than expected GDP figures are generally bullish for the Euro, while negative readings are generally bearish.

Technically, Gross Domestic Product is calculated in the following way:

GDP = C + I + G + (EX - IM)

where

C = private consumption, I = private investment, G = government expenditure, EX = exports of goods and services, IM = imports of goods and services.

French GDP figures, officially called Quarterly National Accounts, are released quarterly. The headline figures are annualized percentage changes in real and nominal GDP.

The German group GfK uses this report to show the results of their survey on business consumer confidence in order to gauge the health of the German economy. It is a leading indicator of economic strength.

The ZEW-CS Indicator is calculated monthly by the Centre for European Economic Research (ZEW) in cooperation with Credit Suisse (CS). The indicator reflects the expectations of the surveyed financial market experts regarding the economic development in Switzerland on a six-month time horizon.

Since 2004 the ECB has published twice a year the Financial Stability Review which provides an overview of the possible sources of risk and vulnerability to financial stability in the euro area.

Bank of Japan Governor Haruhiko Kuroda will hold a press conference about monetary policies in Tokyo. Mr Kuroda exercises general control over the Bank's business. He is in charge of the Internal Auditors' Office.

Shows the dynamics in the amount of profit by the corresponding period. Growth reflects improvements in the corporate sector, which can support a course on speculation about stronger labor market performance in the future and a higher capital inflow in the country.

The value of orders placed for relatively long-lasting goods. Durable Goods are expected to last more than three years. Such products often require large investments and usually reflect optimism on the part of the buyer that their expenditure will be worthwhile.

Because orders for goods have large sway over the actual production, this figure serves as an excellent forecast of US output to come. Durable Goods are typically sensitive to economic changes. When consumers become sceptical about economic conditions, sales of durable goods are one of the first to be impacted since consumers can delay purchases of durable items, like cars and televisions, only spending money on necessities in times of economic hardship. Conversely, when consumer confidence is restored, orders for durable goods rebound quickly.

The actual inventories of crude oil, gasoline, and distillate, such as jet fuel, as reported on a weekly basis. The numbers are watched closely by the energy markets, and if the results differ greatly from the expected inventory levels, the market can react strongly. The inventory data can be skewed by holidays and seasonal factors. Weekly data can be unreliable and should be viewed as a part of longer-term trends, so a four-week moving average may be more useful.

Federal Reserve FOMC members vote on where to set the nation's key interest rates and their public engagements are often used to drop subtle clues regarding future monetary policy.

The Federal Open Market Committee (FOMC) Meeting Minutes are a verbatim record of the committee's meeting held about two weeks earlier.

Time
Country
Macroeconomic Indices Period Previous Reading Forecast Actual Reading Importance
01:45
RBA Assistant Governor Luci Ellis Speaks
Low
03:30
Construction Work Done 1 quarter -0.4% 1.1%
Medium
04:00
Official Cash Rate May 1.50% 2.00%
High
04:00
RBNZ Rate Statement
High
04:00
RBNZ Monetary Policy Statement
High
05:00
RBNZ Press Conference
High
07:00
Leading Indicators Mar 101.0 101.0
Low
08:00
GDP 1 quarter 0.2%; 4.0% 0.2%; 4.0%
Low
08:00
GfK Consumer Climate Jun -26.5 -25.6
Low
10:00
ZEW-CS Survey (Economic Expectations) May -51.6 -45.3
Low
10:00
ECB Financial Stability Report
Medium
13:05
BOJ Governor Haruhiko Kuroda Speaks
High
14:30
Corporate Profits 1 quarter 3.8%
Low
14:30
Durable Goods Orders Apr 0.8%; 1.1% 0.6%; 0.6%
Medium
16:30
Crude Oil Inventories May -3394K
Medium
18:15
FOMC Member Lael Brainard Speaks
Medium
20:00
FOMC Meeting Minutes
High
Thursday, 26 May 2022 

Change in the price of services purchased by corporations. It's a leading indicator of consumer inflation - when corporations pay more for services the higher costs are usually passed on to the consumer.

The release is published every quarter, and about 60 days after the quarter ends. It is published by the Australian Bureau of Statistics, and measures the alteration in the overall inflation-amended value (real value) of new capital investments produced by private businesses. The data release is important for traders, as it is a top indicator of Australia’s economic health. Additionally, a change in the investment levels for businesses is usually a sign for future economic movement, including earning, spending and hiring.

Gauge for goods sold at retail outlets in the past month. Retail Sales is a leading indicator for the economy. Rising consumer spending fuels economic growth, confirms signals from consumer confidence, and may spark inflationary pressures.

The headline figure is expressed as the percentage change from the same month last year.

The indicator shows the number of unemployed people in the USA.

Continuing claims refers to unemployed workers that qualify for benefits under unemployment insurance. In order to be included in continuing claims, the person must have been covered by unemployment insurance and be currently receiving benefits. Data on unemployment claims is published by the Department of Labor on a weekly basis, allowing for frequent updates on the levels of unemployment.

The GDP for the United States is a gauge of the overall output (goods & services) of the US economy on the continental US GDP is the most comprehensive overall measure of economic output and provides key insight into the driving forces of the economy.

GDP Influence On Markets
If the figure increases, then the economy is improving, and thus the dollar tends to strengthen. If the number falls short of expectations or meets the consensus, dollar bearishness may be triggered. This sort of reaction is again tied to interest rates, as traders expect an accelerating economy, consumers will be affected by inflation and consequently interest rates will rise. However, much like the CPI, a negative change in GDP is more difficult to trade; just because the pace of growth has slowed does not mean it has deteriorated. On the other hand, a better than expected number will usually result in the dollar rising as it implicates that a quickly expanding economy will sooner or later require higher interest rates to keep inflation in check. Overall though, the GDP has fallen in significance and its ability to move markets since most of the components of the report are known in advance

Due to the untimeliness of this report and because data on GDP components are available beforehand, the actual GDP figure is usually well anticipated. But given its overall significance GDP has the tendency to move the market upon release, acting to confirm or upset economic expectations. Robust GDP growth signals a heightened level of activity that is generally associated with a healthy economy. However economic expansion also raises concerns about inflationary pressures which may lead to monetary policy tightening.

Gross Domestic Product is calculated in the following way
GDP = C + I + G + (EX - IM)
where
C = private consumption
I = private investment
G = government expenditure
EX = exports of goods and services
IM = imports of goods and services

The figure is commonly reported in headlines as an annualized percentage, based on quarterly data.

On a technical note: The GDP can be reported in either real or nominal terms, real GDP being adjusted for inflation. GDP actually has three releases, as an Advanced, Preliminary, and Final figure. The Advanced figure is released four weeks following the quarter's end. One month later, the Preliminary GDP is released, followed by the Final GDP measure at the end of the quarter following the reporting quarter. As the most timely measure, the Advanced GDP tends to move markets the most.

Measures changes in the prices of goods and services that are included in US GDP. The GDP Price Index is an indicator for inflation calculated by comparing the current GDP to GDP in the reference year. A high or rising GDP Price Index, like other indicators of inflation, puts pressure on the Federal Reserve to raise interest rates.

The GDP price index differs from other more popular inflation measures like CPI, in that it includes all products accounted for by GDP and does not include the affects of changes in import prices. Furthermore, the report is only released quarterly and commands little market attention because of it lack of timeliness.

The headline figure is the annualized percentage change.

Tracks residential housing contract activity of existing single-family homes. The Pending Home Sales report is an advanced read on trends in the US housing market. Housing is typically correlated to the overall state of the economy; particularly indicative of economic turning points. A sharp drop in housing demand typically acts as a warning signal of economic slowdown as buyers are reluctant to purchase houses when interest rates are high, disposable income is low, or consumer confidence is low. Conversely, a rebound in the housing market is often a leading indicator of an economic recovery.

The report headline is expressed in percentage change in pending home sales from previous month.

Weekly report about natural gas storage change in the USA.

Time
Country
Macroeconomic Indices Period Previous Reading Forecast Actual Reading Importance
01:50
Corporate Service Price Index Apr 1.3% 1.5%
Low
03:30
Private Capital Expenditure 1 quarter 1.1% 1.6%
Medium
14:30
Retail Sales Mar 0.1%; 2.1% 1.4%; 2.0%
Medium
14:30
Unemployment Claims May 218K 210K
Medium
14:30
Continuing Claims May 1317K 1310K
Medium
14:30
GDP 1 quarter -1.4% -1.3%
Medium
14:30
GDP Price Index 1 quarter 8.0% 8.0%
Low
16:00
Pending Home Sales Apr -1.2%; -8.2% -1.9%; -13.0%
Medium
16:30
EIA Natural Gas Storage Change May 89
Low
Friday, 27 May 2022 

National Consumer Price Index (CPI) is the key gauge for inflation in Japan. Simply put, inflation reflects a decline in the purchasing power of the Yen, where each Yen buys fewer goods and services. In terms of measuring inflation, CPI is the most obvious way to quantify changes in purchasing power. The report tracks changes in the price of a basket of goods and services that a typical Japanese household might purchase. An increase in the index indicates that it takes more Yen to purchase this same set of basic consumer items.

Markets will typically pay more attention to "CPI excluding Fresh Food," because it excludes volatile food prices that can distort overall CPI. The headline figure for CPI is the percentage change in the index on a month to month or year to year basis.

As the most important indicator of inflation, CPI figures are closely followed by the Bank of Japan. Rising Consumer Prices may prompt the BoJ to raise interest rates in order to manage inflation and slow economic growth. Higher interest rates make holding the Yen more attractive to foreign investors, and this higher level of demand will place upward pressure on the value of the Yen.

National Consumer Price Index (CPI) is the key gauge for inflation in Japan. Simply put, inflation reflects a decline in the purchasing power of the Yen, where each Yen buys fewer goods and services. In terms of measuring inflation, CPI is the most obvious way to quantify changes in purchasing power. The report tracks changes in the price of a basket of goods and services that a typical Japanese household might purchase. An increase in the index indicates that it takes more Yen to purchase this same set of basic consumer items.

Markets will typically pay more attention to "CPI excluding Fresh Food," because it excludes volatile food prices that can distort overall CPI. The headline figure for CPI is the percentage change in the index on a month to month or year to year basis.

As the most important indicator of inflation, CPI figures are closely followed by the Bank of Japan. Rising Consumer Prices may prompt the BoJ to raise interest rates in order to manage inflation and slow economic growth. Higher interest rates make holding the Yen more attractive to foreign investors, and this higher level of demand will place upward pressure on the value of the Yen.

An indicator of inflation experienced by consumers living in Tokyo, excluding such volatile item as fresh food.

Gauge for goods sold at retail outlets in the past month. Retail Sales is a leading indicator for the economy. Rising consumer spending fuels economic growth, confirms signals from consumer confidence, and may spark inflationary pressures.

The headline figure is expressed as the percentage change from the same month last year.

Gauge for costs of homes in the United Kingdom. Mortgage data is used to provide a timely measure of the level of prices. House prices give good information current conditions in the housing market. The Index can precurse broader inflationary pressures felt in later more market moving reports should housing price pressures feed into consumer prices.
 

The broadest measure of money supply in use by Eurozone nations. It includes all currency in circulation, bank deposits, repurchase agreements, debt securities up to 2 years, and the value of money market shares. A larger money supply reduces the purchasing power of the Euro and puts downward pressure on the exchange rate. However, because an increase in M3 leads to price inflation, this figure can also be indicative of the likelihood of future interest rate hikes. The Eurozone M3 is reported in headlines as a percent change from the previous month or as a Three Month Average, which smoothes monthly volatility in the money supply.

Domestic credit to private sector refers to financial resources provided to the private sector, such as through loans, purchases of nonequity securities, and trade credits and other accounts receivable, that establish a claim for repayment.

James Bullard is the chief executive officer and 12th president of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, positions he has held since 2008. He is currently serving a term that began on March 1, 2011. In 2014, he was named the 7th most influential economist in the world.

Comprehensive measure of how much consumers spend each month, counting expenditures on durable goods, consumer products, and services. Personal Consumption is a comprehensive measure of GDP; consequently the figure is watched as an indicator for economic trends. Spending also has direct affect on inflationary pressures.

A healthy Personal Spending figure means that consumers are buying goods and services, fueling the economy and spurring output growth. The report is particularly valued for forecasting inflationary pressures. Taken in excess these high levels of consumption and production may lead to an overall increase in prices. Indeed, the Fed uses a measure of inflation derived from the PCE as their primary gauge of inflation.

On the other hand, persistently low Personal Spending may result in decreasing levels of output and an economic downturn.

Because income is either spent or saved, Personal Spending (when reported as a percent of income rather than the headline percent change) has an inverse relationship to personal saving. Economists watch the growth of Personal Spending in relation to income and saving to determine if consumers are living beyond their means, which would influence levels of borrowing and future consumption.

The PCE figure is released in headlines as a percent change from the previous month.

Core Personal Consumption Expenditure
Volatile items like food and energy can fluctuate widely due to seasonal and non-systemic factors. In order to provide a less erratic picture of Personal Consumption, food and energy items are excluded in the PCE core report.

The headline figure of PCE is expressed in percentage change in spending for the quarter.

Note: The Personal Consumption Expenditure figure is reported with the Personal Income and Outlays figure.

Comprehensive measure of how much consumers spend each month, counting expenditures on durable goods, consumer products, and services. Personal Consumption is a comprehensive measure of GDP; consequently the figure is watched as an indicator for economic trends. Spending also has direct affect on inflationary pressures.

A healthy Personal Spending figure means that consumers are buying goods and services, fueling the economy and spurring output growth. The report is particularly valued for forecasting inflationary pressures. Taken in excess these high levels of consumption and production may lead to an overall increase in prices. Indeed, the Fed uses a measure of inflation derived from the PCE as their primary gauge of inflation.

On the other hand, persistently low Personal Spending may result in decreasing levels of output and an economic downturn.

Because income is either spent or saved, Personal Spending (when reported as a percent of income rather than the headline percent change) has an inverse relationship to personal saving. Economists watch the growth of Personal Spending in relation to income and saving to determine if consumers are living beyond their means, which would influence levels of borrowing and future consumption.

The PCE figure is released in headlines as a percent change from the previous month.

Broad gauge of employee earnings in the US . Personal Income measures the pre-tax income households receive from employment, investments, and transfer payments. As wages and salaries make up the majority of Personal Income, the figure can provide insight on the US employment situation. However, because Personal Income is released after the headline employment figure and earnings figures, its impact on the market is muted. The figure is still useful in gauging the purchasing ability of consumers, though, as rising Personal Income allows for strong consumers spending. Such spending drives output growth and fuels the US economy.

Since July 2015, the US Bureau of Economic Analysis has started publishing preliminary estimate of goods trade balance. This release will be 4-7 earlier than trade balance data. Growth in the reading favors the US dollar.

The stock of unsold goods held by wholesalers. Wholesalers act as intermediaries between manufacturers or importers, and retailers. Wholesalers sell directly to retailers, who strive to act in accordance (ideally) with consumer demand. Consequently, high Wholesale Inventories indicate that unsold goods are piling up, suggesting that retailers are facing lagging consumer demand and unwilling to purchase goods. Conversely, declining Wholesale Inventories suggest retailers are buying more goods to meet strong or rising demand. Because Wholesale Inventories reflect the demand retailers have for their manufacturers' wares, the report offers an early indication of the potential strength of consumer spending.

Wholesale Inventories are reported in headlines as a percent change from the previous month.

Assesses consumer confidence regarding personal finances, business conditions and purchasing power based on hundreds of telephone surveys. Especially valued for its quick turnaround, the University of Michigan Confidence survey is considered one of the foremost indicators of US consumer sentiment. The survey polls a smaller sample of consumers and is less established than the Conference Board Consumer Confidence Index.

Declining consumer confidence levels usually accompany any fall income or wages and precede drops in consumer spending. A low or falling sentiment value is considered an early indicator of an economic downturn. As a result, investors, retailers and traders alike all watch the figure for insight into the general health of the economy. The University of Michigan figures have recently preceded turning in overall GDP.

The headline figure is calculated by subtracting the percentage of unfavorable replies from the percentage of favorable replies.

The Michigan Consumer Sentiment Index released by the University of Michigan is a survey of personal consumer confidence in economic activity. It shows a picture of whether or not consumers are willing to spend money. Generally speaking, a high reading anticipates positive (or bullish) for the USD, while a low reading is seen as negative (or bearish).
The Baker Hughes rig count is an important business barometer for the oil drilling industry. When drilling rigs are active they consume products and services produced by the oil service industry. The active rig count acts as a leading indicator of demand for oil products.
Time
Country
Macroeconomic Indices Period Previous Reading Forecast Actual Reading Importance
01:30
National CPI May 2.5% 2.4%
Low
01:30
National CPI ex Fresh Food May 1.9% 2.0%
Low
01:30
Tokyo CPI ex Fresh Food & Energy May 0.8% 0.4%
Low
03:30
Retail Sales Apr 1.6% 0.9%
Medium
08:00
Nationwide House Price Index May 0.3%; 12.1%
Low
10:00
M3 Money Supply Apr 6.3% 6.3%
Low
10:00
Private Sector Credit Apr 4.5% 4.5%
Low
13:35
FOMC Member James Bullard Speaks
Medium
14:30
PCE Core Apr 0.3%; 5.2% 0.3%; 4.9%
Medium
14:30
Personal Spending Apr 1.1% 0.6%
Medium
14:30
Personal Income Apr 0.5% 0.5%
Low
14:30
Goods Trade Balance Apr -125.3 -114.8
Medium
14:30
Wholesale Inventories Apr 2.3% 2.0%
Low
16:00
Michigan Consumer Sentiment Index May 59.1 59.1
Low
16:00
UoM Inflation Expectations May 5.4%; 3.0%
Low
19:00
Baker Hughes U.S. Rig Count May 728
Low

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