Monday, 15 July 2019 

Measures the volume change of output of the manufacturing and energy sector.

Fixed asset investment, or FAI, is a measure of capital spending. It refers to any investment within the measurement period in physical assets, such as real estate infrastructure, machinery, etc. that are held for more than one year. FAI can be a good indicator for how much investment is occurring in a country or region, but it is not a direct contributor to GDP.

Gauge for goods sold at retail outlets in the past month. Retail Sales is a leading indicator for the economy. Rising consumer spending fuels economic growth, confirms signals from consumer confidence, and may spark inflationary pressures.

The headline figure is expressed as the percentage change from the same month last year.

The percentage of individuals in the labor force who are without a job but actively seeking one. A higher Unemployment Rate is generally a drain on the economy. Not only does it mean that resources are not being fully utilized, but it also results in lower consumer spending as there are fewer workers receiving paychecks.

Note: The unemployment rate generally moves slowly, so changes of only a few tenths of a percent are still considered significant. Also note that the unemployment rate does not account for discouraged workers. Therefore, in an economically depressed environment, such as that which occurred in Cold War era East Germany, the Unemployment Rate may not accurately reflect the extent of problems.

An inflation-adjusted measure that reflects the value of all goods and services produced in a given year, expressed in base-year prices. Often referred to as "constant-price," "inflation-corrected" GDP or "constant dollar GDP".

An inflation-adjusted measure that reflects the value of all goods and services produced in a given year, expressed in base-year prices. Often referred to as "constant-price," "inflation-corrected" GDP or "constant dollar GDP".

NBS Press Conference is a media event in which newsmakers invite journalists to hear them speak and, most often, ask questions. Answers can cause a stir in the market.

Tracks inflation in producer and import prices in Switzerland . The headline figure is the percentage change in the index from the previous period.

Changes in this index will generally precede changes in the consumer price index, as higher import costs and producer prices tend to eventually be passed to consumers. As with any indicator of inflation, increases in producer and import prices tend to act as an appreciating weight for the Swiss franc because inflationary pressures are almost always met with interest rate increases from the Swiss central bank.

The figure represents changes in the combined producer and import price index, calculated from changes in producer prices and import prices, giving appropriate weight to the proportion of domestic and imported goods.

  Survey assessing business conditions and expectations of manufacturing executives in New York . Though the survey is relatively new and New York has a considerably small number of manufacturers, the report has shown a promising correlation to the Philadelphia Fed Index and the market moving ISM Manufacturing Survey. Thus Empire serves as a useful earlier indicator of overall manufacturing in the US .

Results are calculated as the difference between percentage of positive and negative scores; zero acts as the breakeven point. A high figure is bullish for the dollar, indicating positive business sentiment conducive to growth in production. A low or negative number signals poor business conditions.

John C. Williams is President and CEO of the Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco.

Time
Country
Macroeconomic Indices Period Previous Reading Forecast Actual Reading Importance
04:00
Industrial production Jun 5.0% y/y; 6.0% y/y 5.2% y/y; 5.9% y/y 6.3% y/y; 6.0% y/y
High
04:00
Fixed Asset Investment Jun 5.6% 5.6% 5.8%
Medium
04:00
Retail Sales Jun 8.6% y/y; 8.1% y/y 8.5% y/y; 8.2% y/y 9.8% y/y; 8.4% y/y
Low
04:00
Unemployment Rate Jun 5.0% 5.1%
Low
04:00
Real GDP 2 quarter 1.4% q/q; 6.4% y/y 1.5% q/q; 6.2% y/y 1.6% q/q; 6.2% y/y
High
04:00
Real GDP (YTD) 2 quarter 6.4% 6.3% 6.3%
High
04:00
NBS Press Conference
Medium
08:30
Producer & Import Prices Jun 0.0% m/m; -0.8% y/y 0.1% m/m; -0.9% y/y -0.5% m/m; -1.4% y/y
Low
14:30
NY Fed Empire State manufacturing index Jul -8.6 1.6 4.3
Low
14:50
FOMC Member John C. Williams Speaks
Medium
Tuesday, 16 July 2019 

The headline inflation gauge for New Zealand.

It's a detailed record of the RBA Reserve Bank Board's most recent meeting, providing in-depth insights into the economic conditions that influenced their decision on where to set interest rates.

A country's trade balance reflects the difference between exports and imports of goods and services. The trade balance is one of the biggest components of the Balance of Payment, giving valuable insight into pressures on country's currency.

Surpluses and Deficits
A positive Trade Balance (surplus) indicates that exports are greater than imports. When imports exceed exports, the country experiences a trade deficit. Because foreign goods are usually purchased using foreign currency, trade deficits usually reflect currency leaking out of the country. Such currency outflows may lead to a natural depreciation unless countered by comparable capital inflows (inflows in the form of investments, FDI - where foreigners investing in local equity, bond or real estates markets). At a bare minimum, deficits fundamentally weigh down the value of the currency.

Ramifications of Trade Balance on Markets
There are a number of factors that work to diminish the market impact of Trade Balance upon immediate release. The report is not very timely, coming some time after the reporting period. Developments in many of the figure's components are also typically anticipated well beforehand. Lastly, since the report reflects data for a specific reporting month or quarter, any significant changes in the Trade Balance should plausibly have already been felt during that period - and not during the release of data.

However, because of the overall significance of Trade Balance data in forecasting trends in the Forex Market, the release has historically been one of the most important reports out of the any country.

The UK claimant count provides data on those individuals who are out of work and who are claiming some sort of unemployment benefit.

The Claimant Count is the UK's most timely measure of unemployment. The report measures the number of people who claim unemployment benefits, but actively seeking work. The Claimant Count serves as a barometer for the health of the UK labor market. Higher job growth accompanies economic expansion and could spark inflationary pressures.

The headline number is a percentage change in the figure.

It's a leading indicator of consumer inflation - when businesses pay more for labor the higher costs are usually passed on to the consumer. Data represents the 3-month moving average compared to the same period a year earlier. A figure that excludes bonuses is also released, but not included for lack of significance. Source changed series calculation formula as of Jan 2010

A German Firm, the Center for European Economic Research (ZEW), queries financial experts throughout Europe every month in order to make a medium-term forecast about Germany 's economic situation. They ask experts to evaluate the current situation and to predict the future direction of the economy. For all components of the survey, responses are restricted to positive, negative, or unchanged. This simple structure allows the survey to be quick and efficient in terms of turnaround time, as well as easy to understand and interpret.

Experts are asked for a qualitative assessment of the direction of inflation, interest rates, exchange rates and the stock market in the next six months. Thus the indicator provides a medium-term forecast for the German economy.

Technical Note on Headline Number : The results of the survey are always presented as the difference between those experts that optimistic and those are pessimistic. For instance if 25 percent of analysts expect improvement, 35 percent expect decline, and 40 percent expect no change, the headline figure is -10.

A German Firm, the Center for European Economic Research (ZEW), queries financial experts throughout Europe every month in order to make a medium-term forecast about Germany 's economic situation. They ask experts to evaluate the current situation and to predict the future direction of the economy. For all components of the survey, responses are restricted to positive, negative, or unchanged. This simple structure allows the survey to be quick and efficient in terms of turnaround time, as well as easy to understand and interpret.

Unlike the Economic Sentiment Indicator which looks into the future direction of the economy, the Current Situation Indicator focuses on the results of the survey that relate to the current health of the German economy. Expert opinions on whether the current situation is improved, worsened, or unchanged are summarized as the number of positive responses minus the number of negative responses. A higher headline figure indicates a stronger economy and better business climate.

Technical Note on Headline Number : The results of the survey are always presented as the difference between those experts that optimistic and those are pessimistic. For instance if 25 percent of analysts expect improvement, 35 percent expect decline, and 40 percent expect no change, the headline figure is -10.

The Center for European Economic Research (ZEW), queries financial experts throughout Europe every month in order to make a medium-term forecast about the economic situation. Eurozone ZEW Indicator of Economic Sentiment Assesses future economic expectations for the whole Eurozone. The results are summarized as the number of positive responses minus the number of negative responses. A higher headline figure indicates a positive expectation for Euro-zone economy.

Technical Note on Headline Number : The results of the survey are always presented as the difference between those experts that optimistic and those are pessimistic. For instance if 25 percent of analysts expect improvement, 35 percent expect decline, and 40 percent expect no change, the headline figure is -10.

  The Current Account summarizes the flow of goods, services, income and transfer payments into and out of the country. The report acts as a line-item record of how the domestic economy interacts with rest of the world. The Current Account is one of the three components that make up a country's Balance of Payments (Financial Account, Capital Account and Current Account), the detailed accounting of all international interactions. Where the other side of the Balance of Payments, Capital and Financial Accounts deal mainly with financial assets and investments, the Current Account gives a detailed breakdown of how the country intermingles with rest of the global economy on a non-investment basis - tracking good and services.

The Gross Domestic Product is a comprehensive measure of an overall production and consumption of goods and services. GDP serves as one of the primary measures of overall economic well-being. GDP announcements generally conform to expectations as the number comes out after most production figures that lead to overall GDP have already been released. Although releases that are out of line with expectations are rare, unanticipated GDP growth can move markets simply because of its significance as an economic indicator.

Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta President Raphael Bostic - FOMC voting member 2018. Federal Reserve FOMC members vote on where to set the nation's key interest rates and their public engagements are often used to drop subtle clues regarding future monetary policy. More hawkish than expected is good for currency.

Summarizes the flow of stocks, bonds, and money market funds to and from Canada.

An aggregated measure of the sales of retail goods over a stated time period, typically based on a data sampling that is extrapolated to model an entire country. In the U.S., the retail sales report is a monthly economic indicator compiled and released by the Census Bureau and the Department of Commerce. The report covers the previous month, and is released about two weeks after the month-end. Comparisons are made against historical data; year-over-year comparisons are the most-reported metric because they account for the seasonality of consumer-based retail.

This index reflects import price change per month.

Mark Joseph Carney is the current Governor of the Bank of England and the Chairman of the G20's Financial Stability Board. He was also the eighth Governor of the Bank of Canada. Carney achieved these positions by working his way up the ranks of Goldman Sachs, the Canadian Department of Finance, and the Bank of Canada as Deputy Governor.

Capacity Utilization measures the extent to which US manufacturing companies make use of their installed productive capacity (factories and machinery). Capacity Utilization reflects overall growth and demand in the economy, rising when the economy is vibrant, and falling when demand softens. High capacity utilization also exerts inflationary pressures as scarce resources are in higher demand. However, it may also lead to new capital investments, such as new plants, that promote growth in the future.

Measures changes in the volume of output produced by the manufacturing, mining, and utility sectors in the USA. Because industrial production is a measure of output volume rather than dollar value, the figure is not distorted by inflation and is considered a more "pure" indicator for US industry. Though industrial production only accounts for a relatively small portion of the GDP, it accounts for most of the volatility in GDP and is considered highly sensitive to changes in interest rate and consumer demand. Therefore understanding trends in this figure are important to forecasting the GDP. High or rising Industrial Production figures suggest increased production and economic expansion. However, uncontrolled levels of production and consumption can spark inflation.

The figure varies significantly month to month due to the fact that seasonal and weather related factors often alter factory production and utility demand. Because of this volatility, the report has limited market impact.

The figure is calculated as a weighted aggregate of goods and reported in headlines as a percent change from previous months.

The UK Manufacturing Production index is compiled by the National Statistics Office and measures the level of manufacturing output. It is an important indicator since it measures growth in the country’s manufacturing industry which is a major component of Gross Domestic Product. A low reading is considered bearish for the Sterling.

Unsold goods held by manufacturers, wholesalers and retailers. Business Inventories are often able to show economic turning points. A significant decrease in inventories implies that the economy is on the verge of rapid growth because stockrooms for businesses are empty and need to be replenished, which triggers higher production overall.

Inventories are also useful when examined in conjunction with total business sales. Rising inventories paired with slackening business sales are indicative of troubled economic times. When business sales slow down, retailers' inventories increase and they are forced cut back on wholesale orders. Wholesalers, affected by the fear of swelling inventories, will slow or even shut down production in factories.

Recent technological advancements allow firms to manage inventories more efficiently, keeping inventory levels lower. Accordingly, declines in inventory stores are often indicative of productivity increases rather than changes in demand. But these logistical advances put particular emphasis on growing inventories. Increases in stocks of goods signal declining demand in America .

While the Business Inventories figure is released with the Advanced Retail Sales report, the Advanced Retail Sales report features a lag time of merely two weeks. The Business Inventories' lag time is three times as long, making it an indicator that follows rather than leads the overall pace of the economy. Market participants tend to focus more on the Advanced Retail Sales figures.

The headline number is expressed as a percentage change from the previous month.

A timely gauge of home sales and expectations for future home building. Based on a small sample of homebuilders, the Housing Market Index is a timely indicator of future US home sales. However, as the index is not as comprehensive as formal housing reports like new home sales or MBA mortgage applications, the index acts more like a supplemental indicator for predicting housing trends.

As such, the NAHB Housing Market Index is still able to provide general insight to where the housing market is heading. Given that new home sales reflect 'big ticket' items that require construction and investment, the housing market is often viewed as an indicator of the direction of the economy as a whole. Growth in the housing market will spur subsequent spending, generating demand for goods and services and the employees who provide them.

The report headline is expressed in percentage change from the previous month. The NAHB Housing Market Index divides the Single-Family Sales data into three categories: Present, Next 6 Months and Prospective Buyers Traffic.

The GDT Price Index uses a weighted-average of the percentage changes in prices. GDT Price Indices are used to avoid the bias of a simple weighted average price, and to give a more accurate reflection of the price movements between trading events. GDT provides price indices at various levels of aggregation, ranging from indices at the individual product group/contract level through to the GDT Price Index at the highest level of aggregation. The GDT Price Index measures the movement of prices for all products sold on GDT, whereas the individual product indices describe the movement in prices for a specific product.
Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas President Robert Kaplan. Federal Reserve FOMC members vote on where to set the nation's key interest rates and their public engagements are often used to drop subtle clues regarding future monetary policy.
Federal Reserve Chair Jerome Powell. Fed Chair Feb 2018 - Feb 2022. Fed Governor May 2012 - Jan 2028. The testimony usually comes in 2 parts: first he reads a prepared statement (a text version is made available on the Fed's website at the start), then the committee will hold a question and answer session. Since the questions are not known beforehand they can make for some unscripted moments that lead to heavy market volatility. As head of the central bank, which controls short term interest rates, he has more influence over the nation's currency value than any other person. Traders scrutinize his public engagements as they are often used to drop subtle clues regarding future monetary policy.

Charles L. Evans is the ninth President and chief executive officer of the Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago. In that capacity, he serves on the Federal Open Market Committee (FOMC), the Federal Reserve System's monetary policy-making body.

Measures Capital Flow into U.S. Denominated Assets. Summarizes the flow of stocks, bonds and money market funds to and from the United States. The headline figure is the difference in value between American purchases of foreign securities and foreign purchases of American securities, expressed in millions of dollars. The Treasury International Capital or TIC statement is a major component of the American capital account and gives valuable insight into foreign demand for American investments and dollar.

A positive figure indicates that more capital is entering the US than leaving as sales of American securities to foreigners exceed American purchases of foreign securities. Such positive figures suggest that American security markets are competitive with those of other countries. Foreign security purchases are especially important in the case of a trade deficit, as a positive figure can offset the depreciating effect of a trade shortfall. On the contrary, a negative or declining TICS figure reflects a declining capital flow picture. Outflows are indicative of weaker demand for US assets which puts downward pressure on the value of the dollar.

A key feature of the TIC data is its measurement of the types of investors the dollar has; governments and private investors. Usually, a strong government holding of dollar denominated assets signals growing dollar optimism as it shows that governments are confident in the stability of the US dollar. Most importantly seems to be the purchases of Asian central banks such as that of Japan and China. Waning demand by these two behemoth US Treasury holders could be bearish for the US dollar. As for absolute amount of foreign purchases, the market generally likes to see purchases be much stronger than the funding needs of that same month's trade deficit. If it is not, it signals that there is not enough dollars coming in to match dollar going out of the country.

Time
Country
Macroeconomic Indices Period Previous Reading Forecast Actual Reading Importance
00:45
Consumer Price Index 2 quarter 0.1% q/q; 1.5% y/y 0.6% q/q; 1.7% y/y 0.6% q/q; 1.7% y/y
High
03:30
Monetary Policy Meeting Minutes
High
10:00
Trade Balance May 2.85bln 2.91bln 5.35bln
Low
10:30
Claimant Count Change Jun 24.5K 18.9K 38.0K
High
10:30
Claimant Count Rate May 3.8% 3.8% 3.8%
Medium
10:30
Average Earnings Index May 3.2% 3m/y; 3.4% 3m/y 3.1% 3m/y; 3.5% 3m/y 3.4% 3m/y; 3.6% 3m/y
Medium
11:00
ZEW Economic Sentiment Jul -21.1 -22.1 -24.5
Medium
11:00
ZEW Current Situation Jul 7.8 5.0 -1.1
Medium
11:00
ZEW Survey (Econ. Sentiment) Jul -20.2 -20.9 -20.3
Medium
11:00
Current Account (sa) May 15.7bln; 15.7bln 16.4bln; 16.3bln 20.2bln; 23.0bln
Low
11:00
Gross Domestic Product Jun 0.2% m/m; 0.8% y/y 0.2% m/m; 0.8% y/y 0.1% m/m; 0.7% y/y
Low
14:15
FOMC Member Raphael W. Bostic Speaks
Low
14:30
Foreign Securities Purchases May -12.79bln 5.02bln 10.20bln
Low
14:30
Retail Sales Jun 0.4% m/m; 0.4% m/m 0.1% m/m; 0.1% m/m 0.4% m/m; 0.4% m/m
High
14:30
Import price index Jun 0.0% m/m; -1.1% y/y -0.7% m/m; -2.1% y/y -0.9% m/m; -2.0% y/y
Low
14:30
BOE Governor Mark Carney Speaks
High
15:15
Capacity Utilization Jun 78.1% 78.2% 77.9%
Medium
15:15
Industrial Production Jun 0.4% 0.1% 0.0%
Medium
15:15
Manufacturing Production Jun 0.2% 0.3% 0.4%
Low
16:00
Business Inventories May 0.5% 0.4% 0.3%
Low
16:00
NAHB Housing Market Index Jul 64 64 65
Low
16:25
Global Dairy Trade Price Index Jul -0.4% 2.7%
Medium
18:20
FOMC Member Robert Kaplan Speaks
Low
19:00
Federal Reserve Chairman Jerome Powell Speaks
High
21:30
FOMC Member Charles Evans Speaks
Medium
22:00
TICS May 46.9bln 32.3bln 3.5bln
Low
Wednesday, 17 July 2019 

A leading indicator for Australian economic activity calculated by Melbourne Institute.

Benoit Coeure is a French economist who was appointed to the Executive Board of the European Central Bank (ECB) in 2011.

The Consumer Price Index (CPI) measures the change in the price of goods and services from the perspective of the consumer. It is a key way to measure changes in purchasing trends and inflation.

A higher than expected reading should be taken as positive/bullish for the GBP, while a lower than expected reading should be taken as negative/bearish for the GBP.

CPI assesses changes in the cost of living by measuring changes consumer pay for a set of items. CPI serves as the headline figure for inflation. Simply put, inflation reflects a decline in the purchasing power of the dollar, where each dollar buys fewer goods and services. In terms of measuring inflation, CPI is the most obvious way to quantify changes in purchasing power. The report tracks changes in the price of a basket of goods and services that a typical American household might purchase. An increase in the Consumer Price Index indicates that it takes more dollars to purchase the same set basket of basic consumer items.

Inflation is generally bad news for the economy, causing instability, uncertainty and hardship. To address inflation, the Fed may raise interest rates. However, the Fed relies on the PCE Deflator as its primary gauge of inflation because the CPI does not account for the ability of consumer to substitute out of CPI's set. Price changes tend to cause consumers to switch from buying one good to a less expensive-other, a tendency that the fixed-basket CPI figure does not yet account for. Given that the PCE Deflator is a more comprehensive calculation, based on changes in consumption; it is the figure the Fed prefers.

The figure is released monthly, as either a month over month annualized percentage change, or percentage change for the full year. The figure is seasonally adjusted to account seasonal consumption patterns.Inflation is generally bad news for the economy, causing instability, uncertainty and hardship. To address inflation, the Fed may raise interest rates. However, the Fed relies on the PCE Deflator as its primary gauge of inflation because the CPI does not account for the ability of consumer to substitute out of CPI's set. Price changes tend to cause consumers to switch from buying one good to a less expensive-other, a tendency that the fixed-basket CPI figure does not yet account for. Given that the PCE Deflator is a more comprehensive calculation, based on changes in consumption; it is the figure the Fed prefers.

The figure is released monthly, as either a month over month annualized percentage change, or percentage change for the full year. The figure is seasonally adjusted to account seasonal consumption patterns.

In the United Kingdom, the Retail Prices Index or Retail Price Index (RPI) is a measure of inflation published monthly by the Office for National Statistics.

A monthly survey that measures change in input prices as incurred by UK manufacturers. Input prices include the cost of materials used plus operation costs of running the business. The index can be used as a measure of inflation, given that higher input costs will likely be passed on from producers to consumers in the form of higher retail prices.

The headline is the percentage change in the Producer Price Index (Input) from the previous quarter and previous year.

A monthly survey that measures the price changes of goods produced by UK manufacturers. The figure is also known as "Factory Gate Price" because it usually matches the price of goods when they first leave the factory. Increased prices in manufacturing typically lead to higher retail prices for consumers. However, it is also likely that higher output prices are caused by manufacturers charging a higher premium due to higher demand for their goods. Consequently, market trends in consumption should be considered with Output PPI to avoid data misinterpretation.

A broad measure of the movement of single-family house prices. Apart from serving as an indicator of house price trends, the House Price Index (HPI) provides an analytical tool for estimating changes in the rates of mortgage defaults, prepayments and housing affordability. It is a weighted, repeat-sales index, which means that it measures average price changes in repeat sales or refinancings on the same properties.

CPI is the key gauge for inflation in the Eurozone. Inflation, simply put, is a decline in the purchasing power of the Euro, where each Euro buys fewer goods and services due to higher consumer prices. The index tracks changes in the price of a basket of goods and services that a typical household might purchase. When the CPI is high, it indicates that significant inflationary pressures exist in Eurozone economies. This puts pressure on the European Central Bank to raise interest rates. When CPI comes out lower than expected, the ECB is expected to lower interest rates, or keep them lower, to encourage economic growth. As a rule, the Bank adjusts rates in order to keep Europe consumer price inflation in the 0 to 2 percent range.

CPI is the key gauge for inflation in the Eurozone. Inflation, simply put, is a decline in the purchasing power of the Euro, where each Euro buys fewer goods and services due to higher consumer prices. The index tracks changes in the price of a basket of goods and services that a typical household might purchase. When the CPI is high, it indicates that significant inflationary pressures exist in Eurozone economies. This puts pressure on the European Central Bank to raise interest rates. When CPI comes out lower than expected, the ECB is expected to lower interest rates, or keep them lower, to encourage economic growth. As a rule, the Bank adjusts rates in order to keep Europe consumer price inflation in the 0 to 2 percent range.

Yields are set by bond market investors, and therefore they can be used to decipher investors' outlook on future interest rates. The bid-to-cover ratio represents bond market liquidity and demand, which can be used to gauge investor confidence.

The key gauge for inflation in Canada. Simply put, inflation reflects a decline in the purchasing power of the Canadian Dollar, meaning each Dollar buys fewer goods and services. CPI is the most obvious way to measure changes in purchasing power - the report tracks changes in the price of a basket of goods and services that a typical Canadian household might purchase. An increase in the index indicates that it takes more Dollars to purchase this same set of basic consumer items.

As the most important indicator of inflation in Canada , Consumer Price figures are closely followed by Canada 's central bank. The Bank of Canada has a target inflation band of 1 - 3 % and uses CPI and Core CPI as its principle gauge (the Bank of Canada posts inflation targets and CPI on their homepage). A rising CPI may prompt the central bank to raise interest rates in order to manage inflation and slow economic growth. Higher interest rates make holding the Dollar more attractive to foreign investors, and this higher level of demand will place upward pressure on the value of the Dollar.

CPI Excluding Core Eight

The Consumer Price Index excluding eight items which the Bank of Canada has deemed to have the most volatility from month to month. The goods omitted tend to fluctuate idiosyncratically and may distort CPI data. The headline figure for CPI is the percentage change in the index on a month to month and year to year basis.

Note : These Eight items include: fruit, vegetables, gasoline, fuel oil, natural gas, mortgage interest, inter-city transportation and tobacco products. Changes in the CPI Excluding the Core 8 are recognized as a better indicator of inflation than the regular CPI. The headline figure is reported as a percent change on both the month to month and year to year basis.

The Common calculation helps expose the underlying inflation trend through filtering out price movements that might be caused by factors specific to certain components. Source first released in Dec 2016. Consumer prices account for a majority of overall inflation. Inflation is important to currency valuation because rising prices lead the central bank to raise interest rates out of respect for their inflation containment mandate.
The Median calculation helps expose the underlying inflation trend through exclusion of extreme price movements specific to certain components. Source first released in Dec 2016. Consumer prices account for a majority of overall inflation. Inflation is important to currency valuation because rising prices lead the central bank to raise interest rates out of respect for their inflation containment mandate.
Change in the price of goods and services purchased by consumers, excluding 40% of components with extreme price movements. The Trimmed Mean calculation helps expose the underlying inflation trend through component weighting and anomaly exclusion. Source first released in Dec 2016. Consumer prices account for a majority of overall inflation. Inflation is important to currency valuation because rising prices lead the central bank to raise interest rates out of respect for their inflation containment mandate.

CManufacturing Shipments - also known as "shipments of goods of own manufacture" - report the production of goods produced by Canadian establishments in the "Manufacturing Sector (NAICS 31-33)". It measures the Dollar value, not the quantity of manufactured goods produced.

The number of new building projects authorized for construction. The figure is widely used as an indicator for developments in the housing market, since receiving a permit to build is the first step in the construction process. Thus growth in Building Permits reflects growth in the construction sector. Also, due to the high outlays needed for construction projects, an increase in Building Permits suggests corporate and consumer optimism. Additionally, because leading indicators for the housing market respond quickly to changes in the business cycle, the Building Permit figure can act as a leading indicator for the economy as a whole.

The headline is the seasonally adjusted percentage change in Building Permits from the previous month.

Gauges the change in the number of new houses built in the United States. Housing Starts are one of the earliest indicators of the housing market, only trailing Building Permits in timeliness.

Because high outlays are needed to start construction projects, an increase in Housing Starts implies an increase in investment and business optimism. Finally, the Housing Starts figure gives insight into consumer activity, since new home purchases typically require a large investment for consumers. Given such connections to consumer and corporate sentiment, real estate generally leads economic developments. A sharp drop in new home construction is a warning signal of economic slowdown. Conversely, a rebound in the Housing Starts paves the way for economic recovery.

Housing Starts data is differentiated by building types (single family houses, 2 to 4 residence units and 5 or more residence units). The single family housing starts is a more reliable economic indicator than multi family housing starts, as single family house building is driven by demand and consumer confidence, whereas multi family house building is more often motivated by speculative real estate investors. The report headline is expressed in volume of houses built. The figures are in the thousands of units.

The actual inventories of crude oil, gasoline, and distillate, such as jet fuel, as reported on a weekly basis. The numbers are watched closely by the energy markets, and if the results differ greatly from the expected inventory levels, the market can react strongly. The inventory data can be skewed by holidays and seasonal factors. Weekly data can be unreliable and should be viewed as a part of longer-term trends, so a four-week moving average may be more useful.

Report on current economic conditions in each of the 12 Federal Reserve districts covering the entire US. Regional Banks in the Federal Reserve System gather anecdotal information based on surveys of executives, economist and market participants. The Beige Book summarizes this data into a relatively short document, giving a picture of economic trends and challenges faced by different parts of the nation.

In addition to providing useful information on the economy, the report is also a window into how FOMC members may vote at the next interest rate policy meeting. Because each report is based on anecdotal information as much as statistics, it is subjective and may reflect opinions of district governors. As the only comprehensive report made available to the public, the Beige Book provides a rare opportunity for markets to better understand the Federal Reserve and its views on the economy.

Time
Country
Macroeconomic Indices Period Previous Reading Forecast Actual Reading Importance
02:30
MI Leading Index Jun -0.1% -0.1%
Low
09:30
Member of the Executive Board of the ECB Benoit Coeure Speaks
Low
10:30
Consumer Price Index Jun 0.3% m/m; 2.0% y/y 0.0% m/m; 2.0% y/y 0.0% m/m; 2.0% y/y
High
10:30
Consumer Price Index-Core Jun 1.7% 1.8% 1.8%
Medium
10:30
Retail price index Jun 0.3% m/m; 3.0% y/y 0.1% m/m; 2.9% y/y 0.1% m/m; 2.9% y/y
Medium
10:30
PPI Input Jun 0.0% m/m; 1.4% y/y -1.0% m/m; 0.3% y/y -1.4% m/m; -0.3% y/y
Medium
10:30
PPI Output Jun 0.3% m/m; 1.9% y/y 0.1% m/m; 1.7% y/y -0.1% m/m; 1.6% y/y
Low
10:30
House Price Index May 1.5% 1.2% 1.2%
Low
11:00
Consumer Price Index Jun 1.2% 1.2% 1.3%
Medium
11:00
Consumer Price Index Core Jun 1.1% 1.1% 1.1%
Low
11:30
30-y Bond Auction Jul 0.26%; 1.6 0.30%; 1.1
Low
14:30
Consumer Price Index Jun 0.4% m/m; 2.4% y/y -0.3% m/m; 2.0% y/y -0.2% m/m; 2.0% y/y
High
14:30
Consumer Price Index Core Jun 0.4% m/m; 2.1% y/y 0.1% m/m; 2.6% y/y 0.0% m/m; 2.0% y/y
Medium
14:30
Common Core CPI Jun 1.8% 1.8% 1.8%
Medium
14:30
Median Core CPI Jun 2.2% 2.1% 2.2%
Medium
14:30
Trimmed Core CPI Jun 2.3% 2.2% 2.1%
Medium
14:30
Manufacturing Shipments May -0.4% 1.6% 1.6%
Low
14:30
Building Permits Jun 1299K; 0.7% 1300K; 0.1% 1220K; -6.1%
Medium
14:30
Housing Starts Jun 1265K; -0.4% 1260K; -0.7% 1253K; -0.9%
Medium
16:30
Crude Oil Inventories Jul -9499K -3600K -3116K
Medium
20:00
Beige Book
Low
Thursday, 18 July 2019 

The difference between the total value of exports and the total value of imports. A positive figure indicates a trade surplus while a negative value represents a trade deficit. Because Japan 's economy is highly export-led, trade data can give critical insight into developments in Japan 's economy and changes into foreign exchange rates.

A surplus reflects capital flowing into Japan in exchange for Japanese exports, and a deficit means that capital is flowing out of Japan as imports are purchased in larger volumes by Japanese consumers. A trade surplus will act as an appreciating weight on the Yen, whereas a trade deficit will place downward pressure on the Yen's value.

Details in the Trade Balance report itself give useful insight into changing trends regarding Japanese trade. Such developments are especially important for the country, which is an export-oriented economy that has historically experienced large trade surpluses. Any affect on this could have dramatic affect on the domestic economy.

The headline figure for trade balance is expressed in millions of Yen and usually accompanied by a year-on-year percentage change figure.

The percentage of individuals in the labor force who are without a job but actively seeking one. A higher Unemployment Rate is generally a drain on the economy. Not only does it mean that resources are not being fully utilized, but it also results in lower consumer spending as there are fewer workers receiving paychecks.

Note: The unemployment rate generally moves slowly, so changes of only a few tenths of a percent are still considered significant. Also note that the unemployment rate does not account for discouraged workers. Therefore, in an economically depressed environment, such as that which occurred in Cold War era East Germany, the Unemployment Rate may not accurately reflect the extent of problems.

Tracks the number of the employed in Australia . The figure appears in the monthly Labour Force Survey conducted by the Australian Bureau of Statistics. A surge in new employment suggests higher spending potential and budding inflation pressures, which the RBA often counters with rate increases.

The headline figure is the annualized percentage change in employed workers.

Modern award usually defines a part-time employee as an employee who is engaged to work less than an average of 38 ordinary hours per week and whose hours of work are reasonably predictable, with a guaranteed minimum number of hours of work. Work is usually performed on regular days of the week. A part-time employee will usually be entitled to the same employment conditions as a full-time employee, but on a pro rata basis compared to the full-time hours (usually 38 per week) prescribed under the applicable industrial instrument.

A measure of the active portion of an economy's labor force. The participation rate refers to the number of people who are either employed or are actively looking for work. The number of people who are no longer actively searching for work would not be included in the participation rate. During an economic recession, many workers often get discouraged and stop looking for employment, as a result, the participation rate decreases.

A survey of the current state of the business sector in Australia . Based on a survey of hundreds of small and large sized companies, the National Australia Bank delivers monthly comprehensive quarterly reports.

This comprehensive survey primarily provides insight into the state of the Australian economy and puts forth leading indicators that signal its future direction. Thus the survey's findings, if unexpected, have the power to move markets directly.

The National Australia Bank releases both a monthly and quarterly report. The quarterly report is more comprehensive, surveying around 1000 small to large non-farm firms. The quarterly report provides greater detail on the data as well as a short to mid-term outlook of Australia . Because of seasonal volatility and government protections the survey only excludes the farm sector.

A country's trade balance reflects the difference between exports and imports of goods and services. The trade balance is one of the biggest components of the Balance of Payment, giving valuable insight into pressures on country's currency.

Surpluses and Deficits
A positive Trade Balance (surplus) indicates that exports are greater than imports. When imports exceed exports, the country experiences a trade deficit. Because foreign goods are usually purchased using foreign currency, trade deficits usually reflect currency leaking out of the country. Such currency outflows may lead to a natural depreciation unless countered by comparable capital inflows (inflows in the form of investments, FDI - where foreigners investing in local equity, bond or real estates markets). At a bare minimum, deficits fundamentally weigh down the value of the currency.

Ramifications of Trade Balance on Markets
There are a number of factors that work to diminish the market impact of Trade Balance upon immediate release. The report is not very timely, coming some time after the reporting period. Developments in many of the figure's components are also typically anticipated well beforehand. Lastly, since the report reflects data for a specific reporting month or quarter, any significant changes in the Trade Balance should plausibly have already been felt during that period - and not during the release of data.

However, because of the overall significance of Trade Balance data in forecasting trends in the Forex Market, the release has historically been one of the most important reports out of the any country.

Change in the total value of inflation-adjusted sales at the retail level with auto fuel. It's the primary gauge of consumer spending, which accounts for the majority of overall economic activity.

A monthly measurement of all goods sold by retailers based on a sampling of retail stores of different types and sizes. The retail sales index is often taken as an indicator of consumer confidence.

As part of its mission to maintain monetary stability and financial stability, the Bank needs to understand trends and developments in credit conditions. This survey for bank and non-bank lenders is an input to this work. Lenders are asked about the past three months and the coming three months. The survey covers secured and unsecured lending to households and small businesses; and lending to non-financial corporations, and to non-bank financial firms.

10-y Bond Auction is a leading market demand and profitability indicator. Profit falls compared to the previous auctions generally have a favourable influence on the currency.
Bonds with the longest maturity.
Job creation is an important leading indicator of consumer spending, which accounts for a majority of overall economic activity. ADP analyzes payroll data from more than 2 million workers to derive employment growth estimations.

It is a survey conducted by the Philadelphia Fed questioning manufacturers in the Third Federal Reserve District on general business conditions. Conducted since 1968, the "Philly Fed" survey is an established report, valued for its timeliness, scope of coverage and tendency to forecast developments in the market moving ISM Manufacturing figure.

Higher Philadelphia Fed Survey figures indicate a positive outlook from manufacturers suggesting increased production. Higher production contributes to economic growth, which is generally bullish for the dollar.

Results are calculated as the difference between percentage of positive and negative scores; zero acts as the centerline point.

The indicator shows the number of unemployed people in the USA.

Continuing claims refers to unemployed workers that qualify for benefits under unemployment insurance. In order to be included in continuing claims, the person must have been covered by unemployment insurance and be currently receiving benefits. Data on unemployment claims is published by the Department of Labor on a weekly basis, allowing for frequent updates on the levels of unemployment.

Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta President Raphael Bostic - FOMC voting member 2018. Federal Reserve FOMC members vote on where to set the nation's key interest rates and their public engagements are often used to drop subtle clues regarding future monetary policy. More hawkish than expected is good for currency.

The Index includes account inventory ratios, machinery orders, stock prices and other leading economic indicators. As the aggregate of many leading indices the Leading Economic Index provides a forecast of the future state of the domestic economy and is thought to predict activity that will occur 6-9 months after the reporting period.

The index operates on a 1-100 scale, where a value lower than 50 means that most indictors are negative and a value higher than 50 means most indicators are positive. In both cases a greater distance from the midpoint (50) means that the indicators are more strongly positive or negative.

Weekly report about natural gas storage change in the USA.

John C. Williams is President and CEO of the Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco.

Time
Country
Macroeconomic Indices Period Previous Reading Forecast Actual Reading Importance
01:50
Trade Balance Jun -621.5bln; -968.3bln -140.9bln; 403.5bln -14.4bln; 589.5bln
Low
03:30
Unemployment Rate Jun 5.2% 5.2% 5.2%
High
03:30
Employment Change Jun 45.3K 9.1K 0.5K
High
03:30
Part Time Employment Change Jun 3.1K; 42.2K 21.1K; -20.6K
Medium
03:30
Participation Rate Jun 66.0% 65.9% 66.0%
Low
03:30
NAB Business Confidence 2 quarter -1 6
Low
08:00
Trade Balance Jun 3.40bln 3.21bln 4.10bln
Low
10:30
Retail Sales With Auto Fuel Jun -0.6% m/m; 2.2% y/y -0.3% m/m; 2.6% y/y 1.0% m/m; 3.8% y/y
High
10:30
Retail Sales Ex Auto Fuel Jun -0.4% m/m; 2.0% y/y -0.2% m/m; 2.6% y/y 0.9% m/m; 3.6% y/y
Medium
10:30
BoE Credit Conditions Survey
Medium
10:30
10-y Bond Auction Jul 0.257%; 1.22 0.461%; 1.65
Low
10:30
30-Year Bonds Auction Jul 1.165%; 1.19
Low
14:30
ADP Non-Farm Employment Change Jun -36.7K 30.4K
Low
14:30
Philadelphia Fed Manufacturing Index Jul 0.3 5.0 21.8
Medium
14:30
Unemployment Claims Jul 208K 216K 216K
Medium
14:30
Continuing Claims Jul 1728K 1700K 1686K
Low
15:30
FOMC Member Raphael W. Bostic Speaks
Low
16:00
Leading Index Jun 111.8; 0.0% ; 0.1% 111.5; -0.3%
Low
16:30
EIA Natural Gas Storage Change Jul 81bln 72bln 62bln
Low
20:15
FOMC Member John C. Williams Speaks
Medium
Friday, 19 July 2019 

National Consumer Price Index (CPI) is the key gauge for inflation in Japan. Simply put, inflation reflects a decline in the purchasing power of the Yen, where each Yen buys fewer goods and services. In terms of measuring inflation, CPI is the most obvious way to quantify changes in purchasing power. The report tracks changes in the price of a basket of goods and services that a typical Japanese household might purchase. An increase in the index indicates that it takes more Yen to purchase this same set of basic consumer items.

Markets will typically pay more attention to "CPI excluding Fresh Food," because it excludes volatile food prices that can distort overall CPI. The headline figure for CPI is the percentage change in the index on a month to month or year to year basis.

As the most important indicator of inflation, CPI figures are closely followed by the Bank of Japan. Rising Consumer Prices may prompt the BoJ to raise interest rates in order to manage inflation and slow economic growth. Higher interest rates make holding the Yen more attractive to foreign investors, and this higher level of demand will place upward pressure on the value of the Yen.

National Consumer Price Index (CPI) is the key gauge for inflation in Japan. Simply put, inflation reflects a decline in the purchasing power of the Yen, where each Yen buys fewer goods and services. In terms of measuring inflation, CPI is the most obvious way to quantify changes in purchasing power. The report tracks changes in the price of a basket of goods and services that a typical Japanese household might purchase. An increase in the index indicates that it takes more Yen to purchase this same set of basic consumer items.

Markets will typically pay more attention to "CPI excluding Fresh Food," because it excludes volatile food prices that can distort overall CPI. The headline figure for CPI is the percentage change in the index on a month to month or year to year basis.

As the most important indicator of inflation, CPI figures are closely followed by the Bank of Japan. Rising Consumer Prices may prompt the BoJ to raise interest rates in order to manage inflation and slow economic growth. Higher interest rates make holding the Yen more attractive to foreign investors, and this higher level of demand will place upward pressure on the value of the Yen.

National Consumer Price Index (CPI) is the key gauge for inflation in Japan. Simply put, inflation reflects a decline in the purchasing power of the Yen, where each Yen buys fewer goods and services. In terms of measuring inflation, CPI is the most obvious way to quantify changes in purchasing power. The report tracks changes in the price of a basket of goods and services that a typical Japanese household might purchase. An increase in the index indicates that it takes more Yen to purchase this same set of basic consumer items.

Markets will typically pay more attention to "CPI excluding Fresh Food," because it excludes volatile food prices that can distort overall CPI. The headline figure for CPI is the percentage change in the index on a month to month or year to year basis.

As the most important indicator of inflation, CPI figures are closely followed by the Bank of Japan. Rising Consumer Prices may prompt the BoJ to raise interest rates in order to manage inflation and slow economic growth. Higher interest rates make holding the Yen more attractive to foreign investors, and this higher level of demand will place upward pressure on the value of the Yen.

Shows a change in the total expenditure made via credit cards.

Evaluates the monthly change in overall production by all sectors of the Japanese economy. The index comprises a variety of industries: service, manufacturing, construction and public sectors are included. The index closely follows Japanese GDP and overall growth figures, providing insight into current levels of Japanese economic expansion. The All Industry Activity Index is posted monthly as a percentage change from the previous month's figure.

Measures changes in the selling prices producers charge for goods and services, and well as tracks how prices feed through the production process. Because producers tend to pass on higher costs to consumers as higher retail prices, the PPI is valuable as an early indicator of inflation. Simply put, inflation reflects a decline in the purchasing power of the Dollar, where each dollar buys fewer goods and services. The report also gives insight into how higher prices from raw materials flow toward the final product.

A rise in PPI signals an increase in inflationary pressures. Given the economic instability associated with rising price levels, the Fed often will raise interest rates to check inflation. A low or falling PPI is indicative of declining prices, and may suggest an economic slowdown.

The headline figure is expressed in percentage change of producer price.

Notes: The PPI records prices at various stages of production: raw goods, intermediate goods and finished goods. Though intermediate and crude goods prices do provide insight for future inflationary pressure, it is the price of finished goods that generates most interest for market participants. The finished goods data is able to gauge price pressure before the goods reach the retail market.

  The Current Account summarizes the flow of goods, services, income and transfer payments into and out of the country. The report acts as a line-item record of how the domestic economy interacts with rest of the world. The Current Account is one of the three components that make up a country's Balance of Payments (Financial Account, Capital Account and Current Account), the detailed accounting of all international interactions. Where the other side of the Balance of Payments, Capital and Financial Accounts deal mainly with financial assets and investments, the Current Account gives a detailed breakdown of how the country intermingles with rest of the global economy on a non-investment basis - tracking good and services.

In the U.K., the amount of expenditures less the total receipts taken in by the government. Public sector net borrowing is the measure of fiscal surpluses and deficits along with the amount of new debt created. If this number is positive, it means the U.K. is running a fiscal deficit, while a negative number represents a fiscal surplus.

Gauge for goods sold at retail outlets in the past month. Retail Sales is a leading indicator for the economy. Rising consumer spending fuels economic growth, confirms signals from consumer confidence, and may spark inflationary pressures.

The headline figure is expressed as the percentage change from the same month last year.

A survey of consumer confidence conducted by the University of Michigan. The Michigan Consumer Sentiment Index (MCSI) uses telephone surveys to gather information on consumer expectations regarding the overall economy. The preliminary report, which includes about 60% of total survey results, is released around the 10th of each month. A final report for the prior month is released on the first of the month. The index is becoming more and more useful for investors because it gives a snapshot of whether consumers feel like spending money.

The Michigan Consumer Sentiment Index released by the University of Michigan is a survey of personal consumer confidence in economic activity. It shows a picture of whether or not consumers are willing to spend money. Generally speaking, a high reading anticipates positive (or bullish) for the USD, while a low reading is seen as negative (or bearish).
James Bullard is the chief executive officer and 12th president of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, positions he has held since 2008. He is currently serving a term that began on March 1, 2011. In 2014, he was named the 7th most influential economist in the world.
The Baker Hughes rig count is an important business barometer for the oil drilling industry. When drilling rigs are active they consume products and services produced by the oil service industry. The active rig count acts as a leading indicator of demand for oil products.
Federal Reserve Bank of Boston President and Federal Open Market Committee (FOMC) voting member( March 2011 - today) Eric S. Rosengren to speak. FOMC members are responsible for setting the benchmark interest rate and their speeches are closely watched for indications on the future possible direction of monetary policy. His comments may determine a short-term positive or negative trend.
Time
Country
Macroeconomic Indices Period Previous Reading Forecast Actual Reading Importance
01:30
National CPI Jun 0.7% 0.7% 0.7%
High
01:30
National CPI ex Fresh Food Jun 0.8% 0.6% 0.6%
Medium
01:30
National CPI ex fresh food & energy Jun 0.5% 0.5% 0.5%
Medium
05:00
Credit Card Spending Jun 0.6% m/m; 6.7% y/y 1.5% m/m; 6.6% y/y
Low
06:30
All Industry Activity Index May 0.8% 0.3% 0.3%
Low
08:00
PPI Jun -0.1% m/m; 1.9% y/y -0.1% m/m; 1.5% y/y -0.4% m/m; 1.2% y/y
Low
10:00
Current Account (sa) May 22.4bln; 20.7bln 21.2bln 29.7bln; 13.3bln
Low
10:30
Public Sector Net Borrowing Jun 3.8bln; 4.5bln 3.4bln; 3.9bln 6.5bln; 7.2bln
Medium
14:30
Retail Sales May 0.2% m/m; 0.0% m/m 0.3% m/m; 0.3% m/m -0.1% m/m; -0.3% m/m
Medium
16:00
UoM Consumer Sentiment Jul 98.2 98.6 98.4
Medium
16:00
UoM Inflation Expectations Jul 2.7%; 2.3% 2.6%; 2.6%
Low
17:05
FOMC Member James Bullard Speaks
Medium
19:00
Baker Hughes U.S. Rig Count Jul 958 954
Low
22:30
FOMC Member Eric Rosengren Speaks
Medium

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